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Nigeria President Muhammadu Buhari Biography, Family and Children

Nigeria President Muhammadu Buhari Biography

Muhammadu Buhari was born on December 17, 1942, in Daura, Katsina State. Buhari is the twenty-third child of his father, Adamu. Buhari was raised by his mother, his father died when he was about three or four.

Muhammadu Buhari went to Primary School in Daura and Mai’adua from 1948 – 1952, before proceeding to Katsina middle School in 1953. He attended the Katsina Provincial Secondary School (now Government. College Katsina) from 1956 – 1961. On graduation from Secondary School in 1961, Buhari went to the Nigerian Military Training School, Kaduna in 1963.

Muhammadu Buhari Early Life

Category: Muhammadu Buhari Biography

Muhammadu Buhari joined the Nigerian Army in 1961, when he attended the Nigerian Military Training College (in February 1964, it was renamed the Nigerian Defence Academy, (NDA)) in Kaduna. From 1962-1963, he underwent Officer Cadets training at Mons Officer Cadet School in Aldershot in England (Mons OCS was officially closed down in 1972).

In January 1963, Muhammadu Buhari was commissioned as second lieutenant, and appointed Platoon Commander of the Second Infantry Battalion in Abeokuta, Nigeria. From November 1963- January 1964, Buhari attended the Platoon Commanders’ Course at the Nigerian Military College, Kaduna. In 1964, he facilitated his military training by attending the Mechanical Transport Officer’s Course at the Army Mechanical Transport School in Borden, United Kingdom.

From 1965-1967, Buhari served as Commander of the Second Infantry Battalion. He was appointed Brigade Major, Second Sector, First Infantry Division, April 1967 to July 1967.

Buhari was made Brigade Major of the Third Infantry Brigade, July 1967 to October 1968 and Brigade Major/Commandant, Thirty-first Infantry Brigade, 1970-1971.

Buhari served as the Assistant Adjutant-General, First Infantry Division Headquarters, 1971-1972. He also attended the Defense Services Staff College, Wellington, India, in 1973.

From 1974-1975 Buhari was appointed Acting Director, Transport and Supply, Nigerian Army Corps of Supply and Transport Headquarters.

He was also made Military Secretary, Army Headquarters,1978-1979, and was a member of the Supreme Military Council, 1978-1979.

From 1979 -1980, at the rank of colonel, Buhari (class of 1980) attended the US Army War College (established in 1901) in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, United States of America and gained a Masters Degree in Strategic Studies. Upon completion of the on-campus full-time resident program lasting ten months and the two-year-long, distance learning program, the United States Army War College (USAWC) college awards its graduate officers a master’s degree in Strategic Studies.

Nigeria President Muhammadu Buhari Biography

Nigeria President Muhammadu Buhari Biography

Muhammadu Buhari Career

Category: Muhammadu Buhari Biography

In July 1966 Lieutenant Muhammadu Buhari was one of the participants in a coup led by Lt-Col Murtala Muhammed that overthrew and assassinated Nigeria’s first self-appointed military Head of State General Aguiyi Ironsi who assumed leadership of the Nigerian government after a failed coup attempt on January 15,1966 which overthrew the elected parliamentary system of government of independent Nigeria (also known as first republic). Ironsi’s assumption of Nigeria’s leadership was technically another coup following the January 15, 1966 coup. Other participants in theJuly 28, 1966 coup included 2nd Lieutenant Sani Abacha, Lieutenant Ibrahim Babangida , Major Theophilus Danjuma, Lieutenant Ibrahim Bako among others. The coup was a reaction to the January 15 coup where a group of mostly Igbo led by Major Chukwuma Nzeogwu overthrew the democratically elected government of Prime Minister Abubakar Tafawa Balewa. Many Northern soldiers were aggrieved by the murder of senior politicians, Prime Minister Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, northern regional premier, Ahmadu Bello, and four senior officers, Brigadier Zakariya Maimalari, Colonel Kur Mohammed, Lt-Cols Abogo Largema and James Pam. The counter-coup was very bloody leading to the murder of mostly Igbo officers. Among the casualties were the first military head of state General Aguiyi Ironsi and Lt Colonel Adekunle Fajuyi, the military governor of the Western Region.

In August 1975, after General Murtala Mohammed took power that year, he appointed Buhari as Governor of the North-Eastern State, to oversee social, economic and political improvements in the state.

In February 1976, the North Eastern state was divided by the then Military Government into Bauchi, Borno and Gongola states. In August 1991, Yobe state was created from Borno state, while Gongola state was split into two states, Taraba and Adamawa. In October 1996, Gombe State was created from Bauchi State.

In March 1976, the then Head of State, General Olusegun Obasanjo appointed Buhari as the Federal Commissioner (position now called Minister) for Petroleum and Natural Resources. When the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation was created in 1976, Buhari was also appointed as its Chairman, a position he held until 1978. During his tenure as Commissioner, $2,8 billion allegedly went missing from the accounts of the NNPC in Midlands Bank in the United Kingdom. Former President Ibrahim Babangida allegedly accused Buhari of being responsible for his fraud.

However, according to the Modalities for Coordinating Nigeria’s Anti-Corruption Strategies, Constructive Engagement Vol.1 No.1, (2009), in 1983, Shagari administration inaugurated the Crude Oil Sales Tribunal of Inquiry, headed by Justice Ayo Irikefe, to investigate allegations of N2.8 billion misappropriation from the NNPC account. The tribunal however found no truth in the allegations even though it noticed some lapses in the NNPC accounts.

In 1983, when Chadian forces invaded Nigeria in the Borno State, Buhari used the forces under his command to chase them out of the country, crossing into Chadian territory in spite of an order given by then President Shagari to withdraw. This 1983 Chadian military affair led to more than 100 victims and “prisoners of war”

Muhammadu Buhari – Military Coup

Category: Muhammadu Buhari Biography

Major-General Buhari was one of the leaders of the Nigerian Military Coup of December 31, 1983 that overthrew the democratically elected government of President Shehu Shagari. At the time of the coup plot, Buhari was the General Officer Commanding (GOC), Third Armored Division of Jos. With the successful execution of the coup General Tunde Idiagbon, Buhari was appointed Chief of General Staff (the de facto No. 2 in the administration). The coup ended Nigeria’s short-lived Second Republic, a period of multiparty democracy started in 1979. According to the New York Times, the officers who took power argued that “a flawed democracy was worse than no democracy at all”. Buhari justified the military’s seizure of power by castigating the civilian government as hopelessly corrupt and promptly suspended Nigeria’s 1979 Constitution.

Muhammadu Buhari has denied his role in the December 1983 coup however the example of the late Major Bamidele betrays Buhari’s complicity in the December 1983 coup. Nigerian military historians Max Siollun and Nowa Omoigui note that when Major Bamidele got wind of the coup to oust Shagari, Bamidele reported the issue up the chain of command to his GOC 3rd Armored Division (Major General Buhari) who was allegedly in on the plot. To prevent Bamidele from leaking the plot, Buhari ordered the arrest and detention of Bamidele for 2 weeks. Bamidele wasn’t released until the successful execution of the coup. Learning from this unfortunate experience, Bamidele didn’t report any rumors of the so-called Vatsa coup (between 1985 and 1986) and was executed for it. Bamidele’s words to the Special Military Tribunal that tried and convicted him are:

“I heard of the 1983 coup planning, told my GOC General Buhari who detained me for two weeks in Lagos. Instead of a pat on the back, I received a stab. How then do you expect me to report this one? This trial marks the eclipse of my brilliant and unblemised career of 19 years. I fought in the civil war with the ability it pleased God to give me. It is unfortunate that I’m being convicted for something which I have had to stop on two occasions. This is not self adulation but a sincere summary of the qualities inherent in me. It is an irony of fate that the president of the tribunal who in 1964 felt that I was good enough to take training in the UK is now saddled with the duty of showing me the exit from the force and the world”

Major General Buhari’s Supreme Military Council (SMC) observed a minute of silence for the slain Brigadier Bako during the SMCs first meeting, saying Bako has been shot and killed when his troop arrested Mr. Shagari in Abuja

In order to reform the economy, as Head of State, Buhari started to rebuild the nation’s social-political and economic systems, along the realities of Nigeria’s austere economic conditions. The rebuilding included removing or cutting back the excesses in national expenditure, obliterating or removing completely corruption from the nation’s social ethics, shifting from mainly public sector employment to self-employment. Buhari also encouraged import substitution industrialisation based to a great extent on the use of local materials and he tightened importation.

However, Buhari’s bid to re-balance public finances by curbing imports led to many job losses and the closure of businesses.

Buhari broke ties with the International Monetary Fund, when the fund asked the government to devalue the naira by 60%. However, the reforms that Buhari instigated on his own were as or more rigorous as those required by the IMF.

On 7 May 1984, Buhari announced the country’s 1984 National Budget. The budget came with a series of complementary measures:

  • A temporary ban on recruiting federal public sector workers
  • Raising of Interest rates
  • Halting Capital Projects
  • Prohibition of borrowing by State governments
  • 15 percent cut from Shagari’s 1983 Budget
  • Realignment of import duties
  • Reducing the balance of payment deficit by cutting imports

It also gave priority to the importation of raw materials and spare parts that were needed for agriculture and industry.
Other economic measures by Buhari took the form of counter trade, currency change, price reduction of goods and services.

Buhari’s military government continued largely with the foreign policy it inherited from Shehu Shagari. In January 1984, in his new year broadcast speech, Buhari stated that he would maintain and enhance diplomatic relations with all countries and international organisations such as the OAU, UN, OPEC, ECOWAS and the Commonwealth of Nations. He also stated that he would honor all treaty obligations entered into by previous governments, which he did.
Buhari’s foreign policy also focused on Africa, mostly Nigeria’s neighbors due to financial commitments.

Buhari’s administration was embroiled in a scandal[when?] concerning the fate of 53 suitcases, allegedly containing $700 million, owned by the Emir of Gwandu that were cleared through customs without inspection on his return flight from Saudi Arabia.

According to Decree Number 2 of 1984, the state security and the chief of staff were given the power to detain, without charges, individuals deemed to be a security risk to the state for up to three months.[28] Strikes and popular demonstrations were banned and Nigeria’s secret police service, the National Security Organization (NSO) was entrusted with unprecedented powers. The NSO played a wide role in the cracking down of public dissent by intimidating, harassing and jailing individuals who broke the interdiction on strikes. By October 1984, about 200,000 civil servants were retrenched.[29]

Critics of the regime were also thrown in jail, as was the case of Nigeria’s most popular artist and one time presidential contender, afro-beat singer Fela Kuti.[30] He was arrested on September 4, 1984 at the airport as he was about to embark on an American tour. Amnesty International described the charges brought against him for illegally exporting foreign currency as “spurious” Using the wide powers bestowed upon it by Decree Number 2, the government sentenced Fela to 10 years in prison. He was released after 18 months,[30] when the Buhari government was toppled in a coup d’etat.

In 1984, Buhari passed Decree Number 4, the Protection Against False Accusations Decree,[31] considered by scholars as the most repressive press law ever enacted in Nigeria.[32] Section 1 of the law provided that “Any person who publishes in any form, whether written or otherwise, any message, rumour, report or statement […] which is false in any material particular or which brings or is calculated to bring the Federal Military Government or the Government of a state or public officer to ridicule or disrepute, shall be guilty of an offense under this Decree”.[33] The law further stated that offending journalists and publishers will be tried by a military tribunal, whose ruling would be final and unappealable in any court and those found guilty would be eligible for a fine not less than 10,000 naira and a jail sentence of up to two years. Tunde Thompson and Nduka Irabor of The Guardian were among the journalists who were tried under the decree.

Decree 20 on illegal ship bunkering and drug trafficking was another example of Buhari’s tough approach to crime. Section 3 (2) (K) provided that “any person who, without lawful authority deals in, sells, smokes or inhales the drug known as cocaine or other similar drugs, shall be guilty under section 6 (3) (K) of an offence and liable on conviction to suffer death sentence by firing squad.” In the case of Bernard Ogedengebe, the Decree was applied retroactively. He was executed even if at the time of his arrest the crime did not mandate the capital punishment, but had carried a sentence of six months imprisonment.

In another prominent case of April 1985, six Nigerians were condemned to death under the same decree: Sidikatu Tairi, Sola Oguntayo, Oladele Omosebi, Lasunkanmi Awolola, Jimi Adebayo and Gladys Iyamah.

In 1985, prompted by economic uncertainties and a rising crime rate, the government of Buhari opened the borders (closed since April 1984) with Benin, Niger, Chad and Cameroon to speed up the expulsion of 700,000 foreigners and migrant workers. Buhari is today known for his gestion this crises, there even is a famine in the east of Niger that have been named “El Buhari”.

One of the most enduring legacy of the Buhari government has been the War Against Indiscipline (WAI). Launched on March 20, 1984, the policy tried to address the perceived lack of public morality and civic responsibility of Nigerian society. Unruly Nigerians were ordered to form neat queues at bust stops, under the eyes of whip-wielding soldiers. Civil servants who failed to show up on time at work were humiliated and forced to do “frog jumps”. Minor offences carried long sentences. Any student over the age of 17 caught cheating on an exam would get 21 years in prison. Counterfiting and arson could lead to the death penalty.

His regime drew the critics of many, including Nigeria’s first Nobel Prize winner Wole Soyinka, who, in 2007, wrote a piece called “The Crimes of Buhari” which outlined many of the abuses conducted under his military rule.

The Umaru Dikko Affair was another defining moment in Buhari’s presidency. Umaru Dikko, a former Minister of Transportation under the previous civilian administration of President Shagari who fled the country shortly after the coup, was accused of embezzling $1 billion in oil profits. With the help of the Mossad, the NSO traced him to London where operatives from Nigeria and Israel drugged and kidnapped him. They placed him in a plastic bag, which was subsequently hidden inside a crate labelled as “Diplomatic Baggage”. The purpose of this secret operation was to ship Dikko off to Nigeria on an empty Nigerian Airways Boeing 707. The plot was foiled by British airport officers.

Buhari mounted an offensive against entrenched interests. In 20 months of presidency, about 500 politicians, officials and businessmen were jailed for corruption charges during his stewardship.

Muhammadu Buhari Overthrown in a Military Coup

Category: Muhammadu Buhari Biography

In August 1985, Major General Buhari was himself overthrown in a coup led by General Ibrahim Babangida and other members of the ruling Supreme Military Council (SMC). Babangida brought many of Buhari’s most vocal critics into his administration, including Fela Kuti’s brother Olukoye Ransome-Kuti, a doctor who had led a strike against Buhari to protest declining health care services. Buhari was then detained in Benin City until 1988.

Buhari’s admirers believe that he was overthrown by corrupt elements in his government who were afraid of being brought to justice as his policies were beginning to yield tangible dividends in terms of public discipline, curbing corruption, lowering inflation, enhancing workforce and improving productivity. Ibrahim Babangida justified his coup d’état by saying that Buhari failed to deal with the country”s economic problems and promised “to rejuvenate the economy ravaged by decades of government mismanagement and corruption”

Buhari served as the Chairman of the Petroleum Trust Fund (PTF), a body created by the government of General Sani Abacha, and funded from the revenue generated by the increase in price of petroleum products, to pursue developmental projects around the country. A 1998 report in New African praised the PTF under Buhari for its transparency, calling it a rare “success story”. However, the same report also noted that critics had questioned the PTF’s allocation of 20% of its resources to the military, which the critics feared would not be accountable for the revenue.

Muhammadu Buhari and Politics

Category: Muhammadu Buhari Biography

In 2003, Muhammadu Buhari contested the presidential election as the candidate of the All Nigeria People’s Party (ANPP). He was defeated by the People’s Democratic Party nominee, President Olusẹgun Ọbasanjọ, by a margin of more than eleven million votes.

On 18 December 2006, Gen. Buhari was nominated as the consensus candidate of the All Nigeria People’s Party. His main challenger in the April 2007 polls was the ruling PDP candidate, Umaru Yar’Adua, who hailed from the same home state of Katsina. In the election, Buhari officially took 18% of the vote against 70% for Yar’Adua, but Buhari rejected these results. After Yar’Adua took office, the ANPP agreed to join his government, but Buhari denounced this agreement.

In March 2010, Buhari left the ANPP for the Congress for Progressive Change (CPC), a party that he had helped to found. He said that he had supported foundation of the CPC “as a solution to the debilitating, ethical and ideological conflicts in my former party the ANPP”.

Buhari was the CPC Presidential candidate in the 16 April 2011 general election, running against incumbent President Goodluck Jonathan of the People’s Democratic Party (PDP), Mallam Nuhu Ribadu of Action Congress of Nigeria (ACN), and Ibrahim Shekarau of ANPP. They were the major contenders among 20 contestants. He was running on an anti-corruption platform and pledged to remove immunity protections from government officials. He also gave support to enforcement of Sharia law in Nigeria’s northern states, which had previously caused him political difficulties among Christian voters in the country’s south.

The elections were marred by widespread sectarian violence, which claimed the lives of 800 people across the country, as Buhari’s supporters attacked Christian settlements in the country’s center regions. The three day uprising was blamed in part on Buhari’s inflammatory comments. In spite of assurances from Human Rights Watch, who had judged the elections as “among the fairest in Nigeria’s history”, Buhari claimed that the poll was flawed and warned that “If what happened in 2011 should again happen in 2015, by the grace of God, the dog and the baboon would all be soaked in blood”

However, he remains a “folk hero” to some for his vocal opposition to corruption. Buhari won 12,214,853 votes, coming second to the incumbent president Goodluck Jonathan of the PDP, who polled 22,495,187 votes and was declared the winner.

In the run up to the 2015 Presidential elections, the campaign team of incumbent President Goodluck Jonathan asked for the disqualification of General Buhari from the race, claiming that he is in breach of the Constitution. According to the fundamental document, in order to qualify for election to the office of the President, an individual must be “educated up to at least School certificate level or its equivalent”. Buhari has failed to submit any such evidence, claiming that he has lost the original copies of his diplomas when his house was raided following his overthrow from power in 1985.

Muhammadu Buhari and Boko Haram

Category: Muhammadu Buhari Biography

In 2012, Buhari’s name was included on a list published by Boko Haram of individuals it would trust to mediate between the group and the Federal Government. In 2013, Muhammadu Buhari made a series of contentious statements, when he asked the Federal Government to stop the killing of Boko Haram members and blamed the rise of the terrorist group on the prevalence of Christian militants in the South. Buhari stated that “what is responsible for the security situation in the country is caused by the activities of Niger Delta militants […] The Niger Delta militants started it all”. He also questioned the special treatment those militants received from the Federal Government and deplored the fact that Boko Haram members were killed and their houses destroyed.The President of the Christian Association of Nigeria, Pastor Ayo Oritsejafor, reacted to the statements made by the retired general and called for his arrest.

In May 2014, in the wake of the Chibok schoolgirls kidnapping, Buhari strongly denounced the Boko Haram insurgency. He “urged Nigerians to put aside religion, politics and all other divisions to crush the insurgency he said is fanned by mindless bigots masquerading as Muslims”.

In July 2014, Buhari escaped a bomb attack on his life by Boko Haram in Kaduna, 82 people were killed. In December 2014, Buhari pledged to enhance security in Nigeria if he wins the general elections on 14 February 2015.Since this announcement Buhari’s approval ratings reportedly have skyrocketed amongst the Nigerian people (largely due to the incumbent Goodluck Johnathan’s apparent inability to fight Boko Haram’s brutal insurgency). Buhari has now made internal security and wiping out the militant group one of the key pillars of his campaigning.

Previously, Buhari has given his support for the total implementation of Sharia in the country. He was quoted in 2001 as saying “I will continue to show openly and inside me the total commitment to the Sharia movement that is sweeping all over Nigeria”, he then added that; “God willing, we will not stop the agitation for the total implementation of the Sharia in the country”.

Muhammadu Buhari – Religious Freedom

Category: Muhammadu Buhari Biography

On 4 January 2015, Buhari stated that he favoured freedom of religion, that every Nigerian should be free and secure to practice their different religions. Buhari said, “Religion must never be used as an excuse to divide us, oppress others or gain unfair advantage. All my life I have expressed the belief that all Nigerians must worship God according to their wish”.

Buhari has denied all allegations that he has a radical Islamist agenda. On 6 January 2015, Buhari said “Because they can’t attack our record, they accuse me falsely of ethnic jingoism; they accuse me falsely of religious fundamentalism. Because they cannot attack our record, they accuse us falsely of calling for election violence – when we have only insisted on peace. Even as Head of State, we never imposed Sha’riah”

Muhammadu Buhari Awards and Endorsement

Category: Muhammadu Buhari Biography

Major-General Buhari (rtd) has received several awards and medals. In alphabetical order they include:

  1. Congo Medal (CM)
  2. Defense Service Medal (DSM)
  3. Forces Service Star (FSS)
  4. General Service Medal (GSM)
  5. Grand Commander of the Federal Republic of Nigeria (GCFR)
  6. Loyal Service and Good Conduct Medal (LSGCM)
  7. National Service Medal (NSM)

Muhammadu Buhari Controversies

Category: Muhammadu Buhari Biography

Muhammadu Buhari have been linked to terrorism in Nigeria many times as most people believes and conclude he is one of the prominent sponsors to the dreaded islamic sect Boko haram due to few wrong things he’s said.

Muhammadu Buhari is also linked to Islamizing Nigeria since he declared his presidential ambition for 2014/2015 elections.
In 2015 Buhari also had a certificate scandal to his name which is making Nigerians doubt his eligibility to rule the country as he fails to provide his real SSCE result to showcase prove he went to school.

Muhammadu Buhari Wife and Children

Category: Muhammadu Buhari Biography

In 1971, Buhari got married to his first wife, the former first lady, Safinatu (nee Yusuf) Buhari. They had five children together. In 1988, Buhari and his first wife Safinatu got divorced. In December 1989, Buhari got married to his second and current wife Aisha (nee Halilu) Buhari. They also have five children together.

Nigeria President Muhammadu Buhari’s Inaugural Speech

Muhammadu Buhari Health

Nigeria’s President Muhammadu Buhari is ‘recuperating fast’

Category: Muhammadu Buhari Biography

Nigeria’s President Muhammadu Buhari is “recuperating fast” from his illness, his wife Aisha Buhari has said.
She made the comments after a trip to London, where her husband is being treated for an unspecified illness.
Mr Buhari, 74, left for London nearly a month ago – his second trip to the UK for treatment this year.
His absence has led to some anxiety in Nigeria, Africa’s biggest economy, with people speculating about whether he will be able to resume his duties.

Vice-President Yemi Osinbajo is acting president, and has been widely praised for his handling of the country’s economic crisis, following a sharp fall in the price of oil, its major export.

Mr Buhari took about seven weeks of medical leave in January, and flew to the UK for treatment.

When he returned home in March, he hinted that he had undergone a blood transfusion, but did not disclose his illness.
He flew again to London on 7 May for further treatment, and has not indicated when he will return.

Mrs Buhari said her husband thanked Nigerians for their “constant prayers and said he will soon be with them as he is recuperating fast”.

She returned to Nigeria after spending about a week with her husband in London.

Nigeria President Muhammadu Buhari’s unhealthy start to 2017

Category: Muhammadu Buhari Biography

  • 19 January: Leaves for UK on “medical vacation”
  • 5 February: Asks parliament to extend medical leave
  • 10 March: Returns home but does not resume work immediately
  • 26 April: Misses second cabinet meeting and is “working from home”
  • 28 April: Misses Friday prayers
  • 3 May: Misses third consecutive cabinet meeting
  • 5 May: Appears at Friday prayers in Abuja
  • 7 May: Travels to UK for further treatment
  • 6 June: Aisha Buhari says his is ‘recuperating fast’

Nigeria President Muhammadu Buhari News

Category: Muhammadu Buhari Biography

Nigeria’s ailing president has not been seen in two months and has spent over a third of the year so far abroad, with no known plans to return.

More than a month since the two-year midpoint of his presidency, Muhammadu Buhari is still in London receiving treatment for a mystery illness that many believe to be cancer.

His aides refuse to say what is wrong with him, and on his last trip back to Nigeria, Buhari said only that he had never been so sick, and hinted that he had received a blood transfusion.

The president’s spokesman, Garba Shehu, refused a request from the Guardian this week to comment on Buhari’s whereabouts.

The first lady, Aisha Buhari, reassured Nigerians that her husband was “recuperating fast” in June, on her return from a week-long visit to London, but did not share any pictures of her husband like the ones published after an earlier visit. She left again for London last week.

The 74-year-old president came to power in 2015 promising to fight endemic corruption and Boko Haram, the Islamist group that has rampaged through Nigeria’s north-east.

Buhari has ruled the country once before, having taken power in a military coup in the 1980s. He was deposed in another coup, but when he came to power for the second time in 2015 he was hailed as a scrupulously honest man and a strong hand who would deal efficiently with Nigeria’s problems.

However, his long absences have left Nigerian politics beset with rumour and political power play, on edge and uncertain.

His first trip to the UK was presented by his spokesman as nothing to provoke concern: Buhari was “holidaying” and taking “routine medical tests”, the spokesman said.

But on his return to Nigeria in March Buhari admitted he had been seriously ill and only partly reassumed his presidential duties.

When 82 of the Chibok schoolgirls kidnapped by Boko Haram were released in a prisoner exchange in May, Buhari stayed in Abuja only long enough for a photoshoot with them, flying back to London the same night for more care.

This time there was no timeframe as to when he would return. His wife has insisted he is “not as ill as is perceived”. Since then there has been a reel of written statements by the presidency, quoting Buhari’s condolences for deceased figures, his recommendations and sentiments. But without the customary public appearances, these have only emphasised his absence.

An audio clip of Buhari’s message to Muslims, spoken in Hausa, was released for Eid celebrations, but in it his voice was notably weak.

The effect of the reluctance to tell Nigerians the truth about their president’s condition has fuelled rumour and uncertainty. Even senior figures in the ruling All Progressives Congress (APC) party are increasingly speculating over the severity of Buhari’s illness and whether he can remain a viable leader. Suspicions that there is an attempt to control who takes power after Buhari are constant.

In May, Bola Tinubu, the APC leader, called on the army to prevent any attempted coup after reports that a group of military officials were aligning with certain politicians.

Buhari’s illness is being cast as a return to the past for Nigeria. Umaru Yar’Adua, a northern Muslim professor who became president in 2007, was absent for months, with the government of the time refusing to give details about his condition until he finally died in 2010.

Many see the prolonged absence of another ill and aged leader as a precursor to a power play like the one that followed Yar’Adua’s death.

Presidential candidates are expected to alternate between northern and southern leaders, a key destabilising factor in Nigeria’s politics, which is often dominated by regions, ethnicity and religion. Should Buhari be unable to finish his term, his popular vice-president, Yemi Osinbajo, a Christian from the south-west, would be constitutionally mandated to succeed him. Yet that would only be the starting gun for political tussles.

Meanwhile, the country’s challenges continue to mount. Over three years after they were kidnapped, 113 of the 276 Chibok girls remain missing, along with thousands of others who have also been abducted. Despite progress in suppressing Boko Haram’s occupation of urban territory, the group remains a threat, with attacks in rural areas increasing in the last few months.

The resulting humanitarian crisis in the country’s north-east has worsened over the last two years.

The economy has been in recession for over a year, with the fall in oil prices damaging to Nigeria’s oil-reliant economy. Unemployment has risen and businesses have found it hard to import goods due to tougher foreign exchange rules. The government has made a concerted effort to diversify the economy, making the agriculture sector more productive and profitable. There has also been a mass recovery of looted public funds and new social investment programmes.

Reports of corruption by figures in Buhari’s own government, as well as criticisms of his anti-corruption campaign, have further diminished his support.