- 1 Donald Rumsfeld Biography | Donald Rumsfeld
- 1.1 Donald Rumsfeld Age
- 1.2 Donald Rumsfeld Height
- 1.3 Donald Rumsfeld Image
- 1.4 Donald Rumsfeld Wife
- 1.5 Donald Rumsfeld Family | Children | Parents
- 1.6 Donald Rumsfeld Early life
- 1.7 Donald Rumsfeld Quotes
- 1.8 Donald Rumsfeld Net Worth
- 1.9 Donald Rumsfeld Book
- 1.10 Donald Rumsfeld Business career
- 1.11 Donald Rumsfeld Condolence letters
- 1.12 Donald Rumsfeld Retirement and later life (2006–present)
- 1.13 Donald Rumsfeld Prisoner abuse and torture concerns
- 1.14 Donald Rumsfeld Resignation
- 1.15 Donald Rumsfeld Career in government (1962–1977)
- 1.16 Donald Rumsfeld Part-time public service
Donald Rumsfeld Biography | Donald Rumsfeld
Donald Rumsfeld(full name: Donald Henry Rumsfeld) is an American former politician. Rumsfeld served as Secretary of Defense from 1975 to 1977 under Gerald Ford, and again from January 2001 to December 2006 under George W. Bush. He is both the youngest and the second-oldest person to have served as Secretary of Defense.
Additionally, Rumsfeld was a three-term U.S. Congressman from Illinois (1963–1969), Director of the Office of Economic Opportunity (1969–1970), Counsellor to the President (1969–1973), the United States Permanent Representative to NATO (1973–1974), and White House Chief of Staff (1974–1975). Between his terms as Secretary of Defense, he served as the CEO and chairman of several companies.
Born in Illinois, Rumsfeld attended Princeton University, graduating in 1954 with a degree in political science. After serving in the Navy for three years, he mounted a campaign for Congress in Illinois’s 13th Congressional District, winning in 1962 at the age of 30. While in Congress, he was a leading co-sponsor of the Freedom of Information Act.
Rumsfeld reluctantly accepted an appointment by President Richard Nixon to head the Office of Economic Opportunity in 1969; appointed Counsellor by Nixon and entitled to Cabinet-level status, he would also head up the Economic Stabilization Program before being appointed Ambassador to NATO. Called back to Washington in August 1974, Rumsfeld was appointed Chief of Staff by President Ford. Rumsfeld recruited a young one-time staffer of his, Dick Cheney, to succeed him when Ford nominated him to be Secretary of Defense in 1975.
When Ford lost the 1976 election, Rumsfeld returned to private business and financial life and was named a president and CEO of the pharmaceutical corporation G. D. Searle & Company. He was later named CEO of General Instrument from 1990 to 1993 and chairman of Gilead Sciences from 1997 to 2001.
Rumsfeld was appointed Secretary of Defense for a second time in January 2001 by President George W. Bush. During his tenure, he aimed to modernize and restructure the U.S. military for the 21st century. Rumsfeld played a central role in the planning of the United States’ response to the September 11 attacks, which included two wars, one in Afghanistan and one in Iraq.
In addition to war strategy, Rumsfeld’s tenure became highly controversial for the use of torture as well as the Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse scandal. Rumsfeld gradually lost political support and he resigned in late 2006.
Rumsfeld was known in media circles for his outspokenness and candor. In his retirement years, he published an autobiography Known and Unknown: A Memoir as well as Rumsfeld’s Rules: Leadership Lessons in Business, Politics, War, and Life. He is involved with the Rumsfeld Foundation’s Fellowship program, which has advisors at dozens of universities across the United States and supports several military-related causes.
Donald Rumsfeld Age
Donald Henry Rumsfeld is an American former politician who is 86 years old as of 2018. He was born on 9 July 1932,in Evanston, Illinois, United States
Donald Rumsfeld Height
Donald Henry Rumsfeld has a height of 1.71 meters tall
Donald Rumsfeld Image
Donald Rumsfeld Wife
Rumsfeld married Joyce P. Pierson on December 27, 1954. They have three children, six grandchildren, and one great-grandchild. He attended Case Western Reserve University School of Law and Georgetown University Law Center but did not take a degree from either institution.
Donald Rumsfeld Family | Children | Parents
Donald Rumsfeld family includes the following peoples below
- Joyce H. Pierson
- Marcy K. Rumsfeld Walczak
- Valerie J. Rumsfeld Richard
- Donald Nicholas Rumsfeld
- Jeannette Husted
- George Donald Rumsfeld
Donald Rumsfeld Early life
Donald Henry Rumsfeld was born on July 9, 1932, in Chicago, Illinois, the son of Jeannette Kearsley (née Husted) and George Donald Rumsfeld. His father came from a German-American family that had emigrated in the 1870s from Weyhe in Lower Saxony, but young Donald was sometimes ribbed about looking like a “tough Swiss”. Growing up in Winnetka, Illinois, Rumsfeld became an Eagle Scout in 1949 and is the recipient of both the Distinguished Eagle Scout Award from the Boy Scouts of America and its Silver Buffalo Award in 2006.
Living in Winnetka, his family attended a Congregational Church. From 1943–1945, Rumsfeld lived in Coronado, California while his father was stationed on an aircraft carrier in the Pacific in World War II. He was a ranger at Philmont Scout Ranch in 1949.
Rumsfeld attended Baker Demonstration School, and later graduated from New Trier High School. He attended Princeton University on academic and NROTC partial scholarships. He graduated in 1954 with an A.B. in political science. During his time at Princeton, he was an accomplished amateur wrestler, becoming captain of the varsity wrestling team, and captain of the Lightweight Football team playing defensive back.
His Princeton University senior thesis was titled “The Steel Seizure Case of 1952 and Its Effects on Presidential Powers”. While at Princeton he was friends with another future Secretary of Defense, Frank Carlucci.
Rumsfeld married Joyce P. Pierson on December 27, 1954. They have three children, six grandchildren, and one great-grandchild. He attended Case Western Reserve University School of Law and Georgetown University Law Center but did not take a degree from either institution.
Rumsfeld served in the United States Navy from 1954 to 1957, as a naval aviator and flight instructor. His initial training was in the North American SNJ Texan basic trainer after which he transitioned to the T-28 advanced trainer. In 1957, he transferred to the Naval Reserve and continued his naval service in flying and administrative assignments as a drilling reservist. On July 1, 1958, he was assigned to Anti-submarine Squadron 662 at Naval Air Station Anacostia, District of Columbia, as a selective reservist.
Rumsfeld was designated aircraft commander of Anti-submarine Squadron 731 on October 1, 1960, at Naval Air Station Grosse Ile, Michigan, where he flew the S2F Tracker. He transferred to the Individual Ready Reserve when he became Secretary of Defense in 1975 and retired with the rank of captain in 1989.
Donald Rumsfeld Quotes
“Reports that say that something hasn’t happened are always interesting to me because as we know, there are known knowns; there are things we know we know. We also know there are known unknowns; that is to say, we know there are some things we do not know. But there are also unknown unknowns- the ones we don’t know we don’t know.”
“Those who made the decisions with imperfect knowledge will be judged in hindsight by those with considerably more information at their disposal and time for reflection.”
“You go to war with the army you have, not the army you might want or wish to have at a later time.”
“If we know anything, it is that weakness is provocative.”
“Everyone’s saying you can’t do anything until you can do everything, and in life, I’ve never found that to be the case. To me, first you crawl, then you walk, then you run. And so let’s get on with it. Let’s stick something in the ground and not pretend that it’s perfect.”
“Nothing will ever be attempted if all possible objections must be first overcome.”
“Over the years I’ve come to be wary of using the words always and never. They are two of the more dangerous words in the English language.”
Donald Rumsfeld Net Worth
Rumsfeld studied at Princeton University (AB 1954), then served in the US Navy. He served three terms in the House of Representatives (1962–9), then joined the Nixon administration as an assistant to the president (1969–72). He was chief-of-staff under Gerald Ford (1974–5), who also appointed him defense secretary (1975–7). He then became president and chief executive officer for the pharmaceutical firm GD Searle & Co (1977–85), held posts in various business corporations, and for a time was Ronald Reagan’s special ambassador to the Middle East (1983–4). He was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1977.
Appointed defense secretary (2001– ) by George W Bush, he was responsible for the US campaign during the Iraq War (2003). Following September 11, 2001, Rumsfeld oversaw the U.S.-led attack on Afghanistan that resulted in the overthrow of the Taliban. The Iraqi regime of Saddam Hussein was also toppled, and he initially earned praise for his handling of the war. However, as the fighting continued, some accused him of deploying an inadequate number of troops. He resigned as defense secretary on November 7, 2006, after much criticism from the public and even from within his own party for his handling of the war in Iraq. Rumsfeld was replaced by Robert M. Gates in December 2006.
Donald Rumsfeld Net Worth 2019 – Donald Henry Rumsfeld is a retired American political figure and businessman. Rumsfeld served as Secretary of Defense from 1975 to 1977 under Gerald Ford, and again from January 2001 to December 2006 under George W. Bush. He is both the youngest and the second-oldest person to have served as Secretary of Defense.
According To Forbes, Donald Rumsfeld Net Worth 2019 is $20 Million. He studied political science from Princeton University. He has three children with Joyce Pierson.
Donald Rumsfeld Book
- When the Center Held: Gerald Ford and the Rescue of the American Presidency 2018
- Rumsfeld’s Rules: Leadership Lessons in Business, Politics, War, and Life 2013
- Known and Unknown: A Memoir 2011
- Rumsfeld V. Padilla (2004). 2004
- The World According To Rummy 2004
Donald Rumsfeld Business career
In early 1977 Rumsfeld briefly lectured at Princeton’s Woodrow Wilson School and Northwestern’s Kellogg School of Management, located in Chicago, Illinois. His sights instead turned to business, and from 1977 to 1985 Rumsfeld served as Chief Executive Officer, President, and then Chairman of G. D. Searle & Company, a worldwide pharmaceutical company based in Skokie, Illinois. During his tenure at Searle, Rumsfeld led the company’s financial turnaround, thereby earning awards as the Outstanding Chief Executive Officer in the Pharmaceutical Industry from the Wall Street Transcript (1980) and Financial World (1981). In 1985, Searle was sold to Monsanto Company.
Rumsfeld served as chairman and chief executive officer of General Instrument Corporation from 1990 to 1993. A leader in broadband transmission, distribution, and access control technologies for cable, satellite and terrestrial broadcasting applications, the company pioneered the development of the first all-digital high-definition television (HDTV) technology. After taking the company public and returning it to profitability, Rumsfeld returned to private business in late 1993.
From January 1997 until being sworn in as the 21st Secretary of Defense in January 2001, Rumsfeld served as Chairman of Gilead Sciences, Inc. Gilead Sciences is the developer of Tamiflu (Oseltamivir), which is used in the treatment of bird flu. As a result, Rumsfeld’s holdings in the company grew significantly when avian flu became a subject of popular anxiety during his later term as Secretary of Defense. Following standard practice, Rumsfeld recused himself from any decisions involving Gilead, and he directed the Pentagon’s General Counsel to issue instructions outlining what he could and could not be involved in if there were an avian flu pandemic and the Pentagon had to respond.
Donald Rumsfeld Condolence letters
In December 2004, Rumsfeld was heavily criticized for using a signing machine instead of personally signing over 1000 letters of condolence to the families of soldiers killed in action in Iraq and Afghanistan. He promised to personally sign all letters in the future.
Donald Rumsfeld Retirement and later life (2006–present)
In the months after his resignation, Rumsfeld toured the New York publishing houses in preparation for a potential memoir. After receiving what one industry source labeled “big bids”, he reached an agreement with the Penguin Group to publish the book under its Sentinel HC imprint.
In 2007, Rumsfeld established The Rumsfeld Foundation, which focuses on encouraging public service in the United States and supporting the growth of free political and free economic systems abroad. The educational foundation provides fellowships to talented individuals from the private sector who want to serve for some time in government. Rumsfeld personally financed the foundation. As of January 2014, the foundation has sponsored over 90 fellows from Central Asia, provided over $1.2 million in tuition and stipend support for graduate students, awarded over $3 million in microfinance grants, and donated over $2.4 million to charities for veterans affairs.
Rumsfeld declined to accept an advance for the publication of his memoir and has said he is donating all proceeds from the work to veterans groups. His book, entitled Known and Unknown: A Memoir, was released on February 8, 2011.
In conjunction with the publication of Known and Unknown, Rumsfeld established “The Rumsfeld Papers”, a website with documents “related to the endnotes” of the book and his service during the George W. Bush administration; during the months that followed the book’s publication, the website was expanded to include over 4,000 documents from his archive. As of June 2011, the topics include his Congressional voting record, the Nixon administration, documents and memos of meetings while he was part of the Ford, Reagan, and George W. Bush administrations, private sector documents, and NATO documents, among others.
Rumsfeld was awarded the “Defender of the Constitution Award” at the 2011 Conservative Political Action Conference in Washington, D.C., on February 10, 2011.
After his retirement from government, Rumsfeld criticized former fellow Cabinet member Condoleezza Rice, Secretary of State in his memoir, asserting that she was basically unfit for office. In 2011 she responded, saying that Rumsfeld “doesn’t know what he’s talking about. The reader may imagine what can be correct about the conflicted matter.”
In February 2011, Rumsfeld endorsed the repeal of the military’s Don’t Ask Don’t Tell policy, saying that allowing gays and lesbians to openly serve “is an idea whose time has come”.
Rumsfeld was the subject of the 2013 Errol Morris documentary The Unknown Known, the title a reference to his response to a question at a February 2002 press conference. In the film, Rumsfeld “discusses his career in Washington D.C. from his days as a congressman in the early 1960s to planning the invasion of Iraq in 2003”.
In January 2016, in partnership with the literary and creative agency Javelin which handled design and development, Rumsfeld released a mobile app game of solitaire called Churchill Solitaire, emulating a variant of the card game as played by Winston Churchill. Rumsfeld and the Churchill family said that profits from the game would be donated to charity.
Donald Rumsfeld Prisoner abuse and torture concerns
The Department of Defense’s preliminary concerns for holding, housing, and interrogating captured prisoners on the battlefield were raised during the military build-up prior to the Iraq War. Because Saddam Hussein’s military forces surrendered when faced with military action, many within the DOD, including Rumsfeld and United States Central Command General Tommy Franks, decided it was in the best interest of all to hand these prisoners over to their respective countries.
Additionally, it was determined that maintaining a large holding facility was, at the time, unrealistic. Instead, the use of many facilities such as Abu Ghraib would be utilized to house prisoners of interest prior to handing them over, and Rumsfeld defended the Bush administration’s decision to detain enemy combatants. Because of this, critics, including members of the U.S. Senate Armed Services Committee, would hold Rumsfeld responsible for the ensuing Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse scandal.
Rumsfeld himself said: “These events occurred on my watch as Secretary of Defense. I am accountable for them.” He offered his resignation to President Bush in the wake of the scandal, but it was not accepted. In a memo read by Rumsfeld detailing how Guantanamo interrogators would induce stress in prisoners by forcing them to remain standing in one position for a maximum of four hours, Rumsfeld scrawled a handwritten note on the memo reading: “I stand for 8–10 hours a day. Why is standing limited to 4 hours? D.R.”.
Various organizations, such as Human Rights Watch, have called for investigations of Rumsfeld regarding his involvement in managing the Iraq War and his support of the Bush administration’s policies of “enhanced interrogation techniques”, which are widely regarded as torture.
Scholars have argued that Rumsfeld could “probably be held responsible for ordering, solicitation (sic) or inducing war crimes”. In 2005 the ACLU and Human Rights First filed a lawsuit against Rumsfeld and other top government officials, “on behalf of eight men who they say were subjected to torture and abuse by U.S. forces under the command of Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld”.
In 2005, a suit was filed against Rumsfeld by several human rights organizations for allegedly violating the U.S. and international law that prohibits “torture and cruel, inhuman, or degrading punishment”. Donald Vance and Nathan Ertel filed suit against the U.S. government and Rumsfeld on similar grounds, alleging that they were tortured and their rights of habeas corpus were violated. In 2007, U.S. District Judge Thomas F. Hogan ruled that Rumsfeld could not “be held personally responsible for actions taken in connection with his government job”. The ACLU tried to revive the case in 2011 with no success.
Donald Rumsfeld Resignation
Eight retired generals and admirals called for Rumsfeld to resign in early 2006 in what was called the “Generals Revolt”, accusing him of “abysmal” military planning and lack of strategic competence. Commentator Pat Buchanan reported at the time that Washington Post columnist David Ignatius, who traveled often to Iraq and supported the war, said the generals “mirror the views of 75 percent of the officers in the field, and probably more”.
Rumsfeld rebuffed these criticisms, stating that “out of thousands and thousands of admirals and generals if every time two or three people disagreed we changed the secretary of defense of the United States, it would be like a merry-go-round.” Bush defended his secretary throughout, and responded by stating that Rumsfeld is “exactly what is needed”.
Bush nominated Robert Gates to succeed Rumsfeld. On December 18, 2006, Rumsfeld’s resignation took effect.
Donald Rumsfeld Career in government (1962–1977)
Member of Congress
In 1957, during the Dwight D. Eisenhower administration, Rumsfeld served as Administrative Assistant to David S. Dennison Jr., a Congressman representing the 11th district of Ohio. In 1959, he moved on to become a staff assistant to Congressman Robert P. Griffin of Michigan. Engaging in a two-year stint with an investment banking firm, A. G. Becker & Co., from 1960 to 1962, Rumsfeld would instead set his sights on becoming a member of Congress.
He was elected to the United States House of Representatives for Illinois’s 13th congressional district in 1962, at the age of 30, and was re-elected by large majorities in 1964, 1966, and 1968. While in Congress, he served on the Joint Economic Committee, the Committee on Science and Aeronautics, and the Government Operations Committee, as well as on the Subcommittees on Military and Foreign Operations. He was also a co-founder of the Japanese-American Inter-Parliamentary Council in addition to being a leading cosponsor of the Freedom of Information Act.
As a young Congressman, Rumsfeld attended seminars at the University of Chicago, an experience he credits with introducing him to the idea of an all-volunteer military, and to the economist Milton Friedman and the Chicago School of Economics. He would later take part in Friedman’s PBS series Free to Choose.
During his years in Congress, Rumsfeld supported civil rights legislation such as the 1964 Civil Rights Act.
Rumsfeld resigned from Congress in 1969 – his fourth term – to serve President Richard Nixon in his administration, and he would serve in a variety of executive branch positions throughout the Nixon presidency. In 1969, Nixon sought to reform and reorganize the United States Office of Economic Opportunity, an organization created during the Kennedy administration and greatly expanded as a part of Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society programs, rather than eliminate it outright. He appointed Rumsfeld Director of the organization with Cabinet rank. Rumsfeld had voted against the creation of OEO when he was in Congress, and initially rejected Nixon’s offer, citing his own inherent belief that the OEO did more harm than good, and he felt that he was not the right person for the job. He only accepted after personal pleas from the president.
As Director, Rumsfeld sought to reorganize the Office to serve as “a laboratory for experimental programs”. Several beneficial anti-poverty programs were saved by allocating funds to them from other less-successful government programs. During this time, he hired Frank Carlucci and Dick Cheney to serve under him.
He was the subject of one of legendary writer Jack Anderson’s columns, alleging that “anti-poverty czar” Rumsfeld had cut programs to aid the poor while spending thousands to redecorate his office. Rumsfeld dictated a four-page response to Anderson, labeling the accusations as falsehoods, and invited Anderson to tour his office. Despite the tour, Anderson did not retract his claims, and would only much later admit that his column was a mistake.
When he left OEO in December 1970, Nixon named Rumsfeld Counselor to the President, a general advisory position; in this role, he retained Cabinet status. He was given an office in the West Wing in 1969 and regularly interacted with the Nixon administration hierarchy. He was named Director of the Economic Stabilization Program in 1970 as well, and later headed up the Cost of Living Council. In March 1971 Nixon was recorded saying about Rumsfeld “at least Rummy is tough enough” and “He’s a ruthless little bastard. You can be sure of that.”
In February 1973, Rumsfeld left Washington to serve as U.S. Ambassador to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in Brussels, Belgium. He served as the United States’ Permanent Representative to the North Atlantic Council and the Defense Planning Committee, and the Nuclear Planning Group. In this capacity, he represented the United States in the wide-ranging military and diplomatic matters and was asked to help mediate conflict on behalf of the United States between Cyprus and Turkey.
In August 1974, after Nixon resigned as president in the aftermath of the Watergate scandal, Rumsfeld was called back to Washington to serve as transition chairman for the new president, Gerald Ford. He had been Ford’s confidant since their days in the House before Ford was House minority leader. As the new president became settled in, Ford appointed Rumsfeld White House Chief of Staff, where he served from 1974 to 1975.
In October 1975, Ford reshuffled his cabinet in the Halloween Massacre. He named Rumsfeld to become the 13th U.S. Secretary of Defense; George H. W. Bush became Director of Central Intelligence. According to Bob Woodward’s 2002 book Bush at War, a rivalry developed between the two men and “Bush senior was convinced that Rumsfeld was pushing him out to the CIA to end his political career.”
At the Pentagon, Rumsfeld oversaw the transition to an all-volunteer military. He sought to reverse the gradual decline in the defense budget and to build up U.S. strategic and conventional forces, skillfully undermining Secretary of State Henry Kissinger at the SALT talks. He asserted, along with Team B (which he helped to set up), that trends in comparative U.S.-Soviet military strength had not favored the United States for 15 to 20 years and that, if continued, they “would have the effect of injecting a fundamental instability in the world”. For this reason, he oversaw the development of cruise missiles, the B-1 bomber, and a major naval shipbuilding program.
In 1977, Rumsfeld was awarded the nation’s highest civilian award, the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Kissinger, his bureaucratic adversary, would later pay him a different sort of compliment, pronouncing him “a special Washington phenomenon: the skilled full-time politician-bureaucrat in whom ambition, ability, and substance fuse seamlessly”
Donald Rumsfeld Part-time public service
During his business career, Rumsfeld continued part-time public service in various posts. In November 1983, Rumsfeld was appointed Special Envoy to the Middle East by President Ronald Reagan, at a turbulent time in modern Middle Eastern history when Iraq was fighting Iran in the Iran–Iraq War. The United States wished for the conflict to end, and Rumsfeld was sent to the Middle East to serve as a mediator on behalf of the President.
When Rumsfeld visited Baghdad on December 20, 1983, he met Saddam Hussein at Saddam’s palace and had a 90-minute discussion. They largely agreed on opposing Syria’s occupation of Lebanon; preventing Syrian and Iranian expansion; and preventing arms sales to Iran. Rumsfeld suggested that if U.S.-Iraq relations could improve the U.S. might support a new oil pipeline across Jordan, which Iraq had opposed but was now willing to reconsider. Rumsfeld also informed Iraqi Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister Tariq Aziz that “Our efforts to assist were inhibited by certain things that made it difficult for us … citing the use of chemical weapons.”
Rumsfeld wrote in his memoir Known and Unknown that his meeting with Hussein “has been the subject of gossip, rumors, and crackpot conspiracy theories for more than a quarter of a century … Supposedly I had been sent to see Saddam by President Reagan either to negotiate a secret oil deal, to help arm Iraq, or to make Iraq an American client state. The truth is that our encounter was more straightforward and less dramatic.”
In addition to taking the position of Middle East envoy, Rumsfeld served as a member of the President’s General Advisory Committee on Arms Control (1982–1986); President Reagan’s Special Envoy on the Law of the Sea Treaty (1982–1983); a senior adviser to President Reagan’s Panel on Strategic Systems (1983–1984); a member of the Joint Advisory Commission on U.S./Japan Relations (1983–1984); a member of the National Commission on the Public Service (1987–1990); a member of the National Economic Commission (1988–1989); a member of the Board of Visitors of the National Defense University (1988–1992); a member of the FCC’s High Definition Television Advisory Committee (1992–1993); a member of the U.S.
Trade Deficit Review Commission (1999–2000); a member of the Council on Foreign Relations; and Chairman of the U.S. Commission to Assess National Security Space Management and Organization (2000). Among his most noteworthy positions was Chairman of the nine-member Commission to Assess the Ballistic Missile Threat to the United States from January to July 1998. In its findings, the commission concluded that Iraq, Iran, and North Korea could develop intercontinental ballistic missile capabilities in five to ten years and that U.S. intelligence would have little warning before such systems were deployed.
During the 1980s, Rumsfeld became a member of the National Academy of Public Administration and was named a member of the boards of trustees of the Gerald R. Ford Foundation, the Eisenhower Exchange Fellowships, the Hoover Institution at Stanford University and the National Park Foundation. He was also a member of the U.S./Russia Business Forum and Chairman of the Congressional Leadership’s National Security Advisory Group. Rumsfeld was a member of the Project for the New American Century, a think-tank dedicated to maintaining U.S. primacy. In addition, he was asked to serve the U.S. State Department as a foreign policy consultant from 1990 to 1993.
He also sat on European engineering giant Asea Brown Boveri’s board from 1990 to 2001, a company which sold two light-water nuclear reactors to the Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization for installation in North Korea, as part of the 1994 agreed framework reached under President Bill Clinton. Rumsfeld’s office said that he did not “recall it being brought before the board at any time” through Fortune magazine reported that “board members were informed about this project.”
Presidential and vice presidential aspirations
During the 1976 Republican National Convention, Rumsfeld received one vote for Vice President of the United States, although he did not seek the office, and the nomination was easily won by Ford’s choice, Senator Bob Dole. During the 1980 Republican National Convention, he also received one vote for Vice President. Economist Milton Friedman later noted that he, Friedman, regarded Reagan’s pick of Bush as “the worst decision not only of his campaign but of his presidency,” and that Rumsfeld was instead his preference. “Had he been chosen,” Friedman said, “I believe he would have succeeded Reagan as president and the sorry Bush-Clinton period would never have occurred.”
Rumsfeld briefly sought the Presidential nomination in 1988 but withdrew from the race before primaries began. During the 1996 election season, he initially formed a presidential exploratory committee but declined to formally enter the race. He was instead named a national chairman for Republican nominee Bob Dole’s campaign.
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