England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to the west and Scotland to the north. The Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south.
The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries.
England became a unified state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world. The English language, the Anglican Church, and English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, and the country’s parliamentary system of government has been widely adopted by other nations.
Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world’s first industrialized nation. England’s terrain is chiefly low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the north, for example, the Lake District and the Pennines, and in the west Dartmoor and the Shropshire Hills.
The capital city of England is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England’s population of over 56.3 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom, largely concentrated around London, the South East, and conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, and Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century.
The Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain.
In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union, to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded/ withdraw from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
Although being a relatively small country, England has held sway over almost every continent of the world at some time in history. This not only led to the spread of the English people all over the world, but also to the influx of other nations to this relatively small European island.
As surrounding nations, and those further afield, arrived in their droves in search of money, power, and better prospects, the English nation became a varied one. Languages, cultures, and religions converged. Today, the population is one of ever-increasing diversity. This continues to draw people from all over the world; both as a holiday destination and as a home. The long history of England is evident by the many castles, forts, bridges, and monuments erected in memory of long-ago events and people. These alone give this country an aura of historical resonance.
England Capital City
How it began
The Romans founded London about 50 AD. Its name is derived from the Celtic word Londinios, which means the place of the bold one. After they invaded Britain in 43 AD the Romans built a bridge across the Thames. They later decided it was an excellent place to build a port. The water was deep enough for ocean-going ships but it was far enough inland to be safe from Germanic raiders. Around 50 AD Roman merchants built a town by the bridge. So London was born.
The early settlement at London did not have stone walls but there may have been a ditch and an earth rampart with a wooden palisade on top.
Then in 61 AD Queen Boudicca led a rebellion against the Romans. Her army marched on London. No attempt was made to defend London. Boudicca burned London but after her rebellion was crushed it was rebuilt. Rich people built houses of stone or brick with tiled roofs but most people lived in wooden houses.
By the end of the 2nd century, a stone wall was erected around London. The wall was 20 feet high. Outside the wall was a ditch. In the middle of the 3rd century, 20 bastions were added to the walls (a bastion was a semi-circular tower projecting from the wall).
The population of Roman London rose to perhaps 45,000, which seems small to us but it was the largest town in Britain.
In the center of Roman London was the forum. This was a square with shops and public buildings arranged around it. The most important building in the forum was the basilica or town hall, which was 500 feet long and 70 feet high. In Roman London, there were brickworks, potteries and glass works. There were also donkey powered mills for grinding grain to flour and bakeries.
Roman London was also an important port with wooden wharves and jetties. Grain and metal were exported and luxury goods were imported. (Things like wine, olive oil, glass, fine pottery, silk, and ivory).
Rich citizens had bathed in their homes but there were several public baths near the city gates. (Romans went to the baths to socialize not just to keep clean). Most people in the town got their water from wells and used cesspools but there were underground drains to remove rainwater.
Roman London also had an amphitheater, which could hold 8,000 people. Here gladiators fought to the death. Cockfighting was also a popular sport. for more information about the early city of London click
As part of the United Kingdom, the basic political system in England is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary system. There has not been a government of England since 1707, when the Acts of Union 1707, putting into effect the terms of the Treaty of Union, joined England and Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain. Before the union, England was ruled by its monarch and the Parliament of England.
Today England is governed directly by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, although other countries of the United Kingdom have devolved governments. In the House of Commons which is the lower house of the British Parliament based at the Palace of Westminster, there are 532 Members of Parliament (MPs) for constituencies in England, out of the 650 total.
In the 2017 United Kingdom general election, the Conservative Party won 317 seats (the Speaker of the House not being counted as a Conservative), more than any other party, though not enough to achieve an overall majority.
The Conservative party, headed by the prime minister Theresa May, won 55 more seats than the Labour Party, led by Jeremy Corbyn. The Scottish National Party (Scotland only) won 35 out of 59 Scottish seats in the House of Commons.
Lines of men wearing large black bearskin hats and red tunics. Changing of the Queen’s Guard at the royal residence, Buckingham Palace
As the United Kingdom is a member of the European Union, there are elections held regionally in England to decide who is sent as Members of the European Parliament. The 2014 European Parliament election saw the regions of England elect the following MEPs: 22 UK Independence Party (UKIP), 17 Conservatives, 17 Labour, 3 Greens, and one Liberal Democrat.
Since devolution, in which other countries of the United Kingdom – Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland – each have their own devolved parliament or assemblies for local issues, there has been a debate about how to counterbalance this in England. Originally it was planned that various regions of England would be devolved, but following the proposal’s rejection by the North East in a referendum, this has not been carried out.
One major issue is the West Lothian question, in which MPs from Scotland and Wales are able to vote on legislation affecting only England, while English MPs have no equivalent right to legislate on devolved matters.
This, when placed in the context of England being the only country of the United Kingdom not to have free cancer treatment, prescriptions, residential care for the elderly and free top-up university fees, has led to a steady rise in English nationalism. Some have suggested the creation of a devolved English parliament, while others have proposed simply limiting voting on legislation which only affects England to English MPs.
England Location and boundaries;
England is bordered to the north by Scotland and to the west by Wales. It is closer to continental Europe than any other part of mainland Britain, divided from France only by a 33 km (21 mi) sea gap, the English Channel. The 50 km (31 mi) Channel Tunnel, near Folkestone, directly links England to mainland Europe. The English/French border is halfway along the tunnel.
England geographic coordinate;
England coordinates include 52.3555° N, 1.1743° W and Londons include 51.5074° N, 0.1278° W.
England maps reference ;
It is located in the UK which is in Europe.
England area ;
Total area; 130,279 km2 (50,301 sq mi)
England has a temperate maritime climate: it is mild in winter with temperatures not much lower than 0 ° C (32 ° F) and not much higher than 32 ° C (90 ° F) in summer. January and February are the coldest months, the latter especially on the English coast, whereas July is usually the warmest month. May, June, September, and October are months with mild to hot weather. Rainfall is distributed all year round relatively uniformly.
The proximity to the Atlantic Ocean, its southern latitude and the warming of the ocean by the Gulf Stream are important influences on England’s climate. Rainfall in the west is greater, and sections of the Lake District get more rain than anywhere else in the nation. The highest temperature recorded since weather records began was 38.5 ° C (101.3 ° F) at Brogdale in Kent on 10 August 2003, while the lowest was−26.1 ° C (−15.0 ° F) at Edgmond, Shropshire on 10 January 1982.
England land Scape And Rivers
Geographically, England involves two-thirds of Great Britain’s main and southern island, plus offshore islands such as Wight Island and Scilly Islands. It is bordered by two other United Kingdom nations: from Scotland to the north and from Wales to the south. England is nearer to the continent of Europe than any other portion of the continent. It is divided from France (Hauts-de-France) by a sea gap of 21 miles (34 km), though the Channel Tunnel close Folkestone connects the two nations. England has Irish Sea, North Sea, and Atlantic Ocean coasts as well.
London, Liverpool, and Newcastle ports are located respectively on the Thames, Mersey, and Tyne tidal rivers. The Severn is the longest river that flows through England at 220 miles (350 km). It empties into the Bristol Channel and is remarkable for its Severn Bore (a tidal bore) that can achieve a height of 2 meters (6.6 ft). The longest river in England, however, is the Thames, which has a length of 215 miles (346 km). In England there are many lakes; the biggest is Windermere, within the Lake District, which is well-named.
Most of England’s landscape comprises of low mountains and plains, with northern and western upland and mountainous terrain. The northern uplands are the Pennines, a chain of east and west dividing uplands, Cumbria’s Lake District mountains, and the Cheviot Hills, straddling the England-Scottish border. Scafell Pike in the Lake District is the lowest point in England, at 978 meters (3,209 ft). The Shropshire Hills are close to Wales, while Dartmoor and Exmoor in the south-west of the nation are two upland regions. The Tees-Exe line often indicates the approximate dividing line between kinds of terrain.
Geologically speaking, the Pennines, known as England’s “backbone,” is the country’s oldest mountain range, originating around 300 million years ago from the end of the Paleozoic era. Among other things, their geological structure involves sandstone and calcareous, as well as coal. Calcite regions such as parts of Yorkshire and Derbyshire have karst landscapes. In upland areas, the Pennine landscape is elevated moorland, indented by fertile valleys of the rivers of the region. They have two national parks, the Dales of Yorkshire and the District of Peak. In the West Country, the Southwest Peninsula’s Dartmoor and Exmoor include granite-backed alpine moorland and enjoy a gentle environment; both our domestic parks.
The English Lowlands are in the central and southern regions of the country, consisting of green rolling hills, including the Cotswold Hills, Chiltern Hills, North and South Downs; where they meet the sea they form white rock exposures such as the cliffs of Dover. This also includes relatively flat plains such as the Salisbury Plain, Somerset Levels, South Coast Plain, and The Fens.
England natural resources
Natural resources are things that occur naturally, and that is useful to us. They include fuels such as oil and natural gas, and materials such as iron ore, and timber. Natural resources may be renewable or non-renewable. Renewable resources are those that are replaced in nature at a rate close to their rate of use eg plants and animals. Nonrenewable resources exist in fixed amounts or are used up faster than they can be replaced in nature eg. fossil fuels. The most important natural in England is its energy resources which generate about 10 percent income for our country. Natural resources: coal, petroleum, natural gas – found in the British sector of the North Sea, zinc tin, limestone, iron ore, salt, slate, clay, chalk, gypsum, lead, silica, arable land. UK and England share most of these resources
Coal (non- renewable resources)
England has large deposits of coal, mined for more than 300 years. For most of the 19th and 20th centuries, coal was England’s richest natural resource, meeting most of the nation’s requirement for energy.
Today, coal can be produced more cheaply in other countries and so many British factories and mines have closed. In 1970 we were the third largest producer of coal but coal production has declined rapidly since then.
In 2000, only 35 million tonnes of coal was produced compared to 145 million in 1970. Areas like South Wales, central Scotland, the north of England (the Midlands, Merseyside, Manchester, West Yorkshire, and Newcastle) and London were important industrial centers.
Oil and Gas (non- renewable resources)
Oil and gas were discovered under the North Sea during the 1960s and new supplies are still being found today. Gas has been particularly important in replacing coal as a fuel for generating electricity.
Wind Power (renewable resources)
The business of generating electricity from the wind is growing fast as the world looks for cleaner ways to produce energy. Coal, oil, and gas-fired power stations could eventually be replaced by wind farms and other forms of renewable energy. In 1997, there were 550 wind turbines and over 30 wind farms in the UK. The government has made a promise that 10% of the energy of the UK will come from renewable sources by 2010.
Minerals (non- renewable resources)
England has relatively few mineral resources. Zinc, tin, iron ore, and copper are all produced in small quantities. Our main commercial minerals are those used in the construction and building industries such as sand and gravel, limestone and gypsum.
They are normally mined from the surface in quarries using heavy machinery. Smaller quarries are also found across England and provide stone for the local building industry. This means that many parts of England have a distinctive appearance according to the local stone available.
Products (1.4% of GDP): cereals, oilseed, potatoes, vegetables, cattle, sheep, poultry, fish. Agriculture is intensive, highly mechanized, and efficient by European standards, producing about 60% of food needs with only 1% of the labor force. The lowlands support some farming such as wheat, potatoes, and vegetables. Dairy and sheep farming are common in the hilly pastures.
England Country Flag
The origin of the flag, its association with St. George (the patron saint of England), and its adoption by England all lack thorough and clear documentation. At the Church of St. George in Fordington, England, there is a sculpture of St. George on a horse leading the Crusaders to victory at the Battle of Antioch (June 1098); his flag bears a cross. It is known that English Crusaders used a red flag with a white cross about 1189. Another record, dating from 1277, attests that a red Cross of St. George on white was used for pennants flown by the troops of King Edward I. The same flag, referred to as the Banner of Victory, was early shown in artistic representations of Christ; the flag was only later attributed to St. George in his role as patron saint of soldiers. Some evidence suggests that a flag of this design flew on English ships in the late 13th century. As part of the Union Jack and various other British flags, the Cross of St. George today continues to play an important symbolic role, although when England and Scotland joined to form Great Britain in 1707 their flags lost individual international status.
Here is the national anthem of England
England Country Currency
The official currency of England is the sterling pound, known as the pound (£, GBP). Each pound is divided into 100 pence (100p = £1).
The most common banknotes are £5, £10, £20, £50 and £100. £1 notes also exist, but these are extremely rare, as only notes printed by The Bank of Scotland remain in circulation, and printing of new £1 notes ceased in 2001.
The coins in circulation are 1p, 2p, 5p, 10p, 20p, 50p and £1 and £2. Sometimes, special editions of £5 coins are released, but their circulation is merely theoretical.
England is a nation that comes under the United Kingdom. Not just England is the greatest nation by population in the UK; it is 25th biggest nation on the planet in terms of population on the off chance that it is free from the UK and the fifth biggest in the whole of Europe. It is flanked by Wales to the west and Scotland to the north.
Other significant urban areas incorporate Birmingham, Manchester, Liverpool, Leeds, and others. England as a country boasts of the well known English Premier League in which various soccer clubs contend with one another for the title.
To find out the population of England of the year 2019, the population for the previous 5 years has to be checked. They are as follows.
1. 2014 – 54.5 Million
2. 2015 – 54.7 Million
3. 2016 – 55 Million
4. 2017 – 55.5 Million
5. 2018 – 55.8 Million
The population of England in 2019 can be known after checking the population from the last 5 years. It is noticed that the population in the last 5 years has increased by 1.3 Million. Also, each year the population increases by 0.26 Million in terms of aggregate.
Hence, the population of England in 2019 is expected to be 55.8 Million + 0.26 Million = 56.06 Million. To conclude, the population of England in 2019 as per estimates is 56.06 Million.
England Population 2019 –56.06 Million (estimated)
England Population Density Distribution
The population density of England is 424 people per square kilometer. Going back to the recent seven years of England’s population, the growth rate is moderate yet steady, running from 0.2% to 0.50%. Contrasting with the population growth rate of the UK, the population growth rate is underneath the UK growth rate. Between 2004 and 2014, the number of occupants in England grew at 0.79% in a year, possibly higher than the 0.75% growth rate in the rest of the UK.
As its name suggests, the English language, today is spoken by hundreds of millions of people around the world, originated as the language of England, where it remains the principal tongue spoken by 98% of the population. It is an Indo-European language in the Anglo-Frisian branch of the Germanic family. After the Norman conquest, the Old English language was displaced and confined to the lower social classes as Norman French and Latin were used by the aristocracy.
By the 15th century, English was back in fashion among all classes, though much changed; the Middle English form showed many signs of French influence, both in vocabulary and spelling. During the English Renaissance, many words were coined from Latin and Greek origins. Modern English has extended this custom of flexibility when it comes to incorporating words from different languages. Thanks in large part to the British Empire, the English language is the world’s unofficial lingua franca.
English language learning and teaching is an important economic activity and includes language schooling, tourism spending, and publishing. There is no legislation mandating an official language for England, but English is the only language used for official business. Despite the country’s relatively small size, there are many distinct regional accents, and individuals with particularly strong accents may not be easily understood everywhere in the country.
As well as English, England has two other indigenous languages, Cornish and Welsh. Cornish died out as a community language in the 18th century but is being revived, and is now protected under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. It is spoken by 0.1% of people in Cornwall and is taught to some degree in several primary and secondary schools.
When the modern border between Wales and England was established by the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542, many Welsh-speaking communities found themselves on the English side of the border. Welsh was spoken in Archenfield in Herefordshire into the nineteenth century, and by natives of parts of western Shropshire until the middle of the twentieth century if not later.
State schools teach students a second language, usually French, German or Spanish. Due to immigration, it was reported in 2007 that around 800,000 school students spoke a foreign language at home, the most common being Punjabi and Urdu. However, following the 2011 census data released by the Office for National Statistics, figures now show that Polish is the main language spoken in England after English.
Transportation In England
English railway transport is largely based on services originating from one of London’s rail termini operating in all directions on tracks mostly owned by Network Rail. Internal intercity services include:
1. Abellio Greater Anglia
-London Liverpool Street to East Anglia: Chelmsford, Colchester, Ipswich, Norwich (main branches include Southend, Clacton-on-Sea)
2. London North Eastern Railway
– London King’s Cross to the North East: Leeds, York, Newcastle upon Tyne, and into Scotland, Edinburgh Waverley (onwards to Aberdeen and Inverness) and Glasgow Central.
3. Virgin Trains
-London Euston to the Midlands: Birmingham, Wolverhampton, Coventry.
-London Euston to the North West: Crewe, (Chester and into Wales to Holyhead), Liverpool, Manchester, Preston, Lancaster, Carlisle, into Scotland, Glasgow Central (for connections to the rest of Scotland).
4. Great Western Railway
-London Paddington to the West and South West: Reading, Swindon, Bristol into Wales (onwards as the South Wales Main Line to Swansea), Exeter, Plymouth and into Cornwall to Penzance.
5. South Western Railway
-London Waterloo to the South West: Mainline services to Portsmouth, Weymouth and Guildford, and suburban services to Reading and Windsor.
-The Island Line is also operated by South Western Railway, operating between Ryde Pier Head and Shanklin.
-London Fenchurch Street to Shoeburyness.
-London Victoria to the South: Southampton, Brighton.
-London St Pancras to the South East: Ashford, Margate, Canterbury.
-London Victoria, London Charing Cross, London Cannon Street and London Bridge to the South East: Ashford, Margate, Canterbury, and suburban services to Dartford and Sevenoaks and other areas of Kent.
9. Chiltern Railways
-London Marylebone to the Midlands: High Wycombe, Aylesbury, Banbury, and Birmingham.
10. Grand Central
-London King’s Cross to York and Sunderland.
11. East Midlands Railway
-London St Pancras to the East Midlands and the North: Corby, Melton Mowbray, Derby, Nottingham, Sheffield, York, Scarborough, Lincoln, and Leeds.
12. Govia Thameslink Railway
-Thameslink services operate across London from Bedford to Brighton, through London St Pancras and Blackfriars, as well as suburban services.
-Great Northern services operate from London King’s Cross and Moorgate to Cambridge and Welwyn Garden City.
Short distance travel that doesn’t pass through London is generally referred to as cross country travel. Most services are operated by CrossCountry and often terminate in South East Wales or Scotland. The Oxford to Cambridge or Varsity Line is due to be rebuilt to enable journeys avoiding London and Birmingham.
Regional train services are also operated by these, and other, train companies, and focus on the major cities, several of which have developed commuter and urban rail networks. This includes the London Overground in London and the Merseyrail, which operates in and around Liverpool. The London Underground (commonly known as the Tube) is the oldest and longest rapid transit system in the world.
Trams and light rail
Tram systems were popular in England in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. However, with the rise of the motor bus and later the car they began to be widely dismantled in the 1950s. By 1962, only Blackpool tramway remained. However, in recent years trams have seen a revival, as in other countries, as have light rail systems. Examples of this second generation of tram systems and light rail include:
1. Docklands Light Railway in east London.
2. Manchester Metrolink in Greater Manchester.
3. Sheffield Supertram in Sheffield.
4. Midland Metro in the West Midlands.
5. Tramlink in Croydon.
6. Tyne & Wear Metro in Tyne and Wear.
7. NET in Nottingham.
Rail links with adjacent countries
2. Scotland; yes.
The Motorways and major roads in England are managed by Highways England. Travel by car, van or taxi is by far the most common means of transport, accounting for 85 percent of passenger mileage in England.
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