Louis Pasteur Bio
Louis Pasteur was a French biologist, microbiologist, and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation, and pasteurization.
He is remembered for his remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and prevention of diseases, and his discoveries have saved many lives ever since. He reduced mortality from puerperal fever and created the first vaccines for rabies and anthrax.
Louis Pasteur Age
Louis was born on December 27, 1822, and died on September 28, 1895, at the age of 73 years old.
Louis Pasteur Family
Louis Pasteur was born on December 27, 1822, in Dole, Jura, France, to a Catholic family of a poor tanner. He was the third child of Jean-Joseph Pasteur and Jeanne-Etiennette Roqui. The family moved to Marnoz in 1826 and then to Arbois in 1827.
Louis Pasteur Education/ Early life
Pasteur entered primary school in 1831. He was an average student in his early years, and not particularly academic, as his interests were fishing and sketching. He drew many pastels and portraits of his parents, friends, and neighbors. Pasteur attended secondary school at the Collège d’Arbois. In October 1838, he left for Paris to join the Pension Barbet, but became homesick and returned in November.
In 1839, he entered the Collège Royal at Besançon to study philosophy and earned his Bachelor of Letters degree in 1840. He was appointed a tutor at the Besançon college while continuing a degree science course with special mathematics. He failed his first examination in 1841. He managed to pass the baccalauréat Scientifique (general science) degree in 1842 from Dijon but with a mediocre grade in chemistry.
Later in 1842, Pasteur took the entrance test for the École Normale Supérieure. He passed the first set of tests, but because his ranking was low, Pasteur decided not to continue and try again next year.
He went back to the Pension Barbet to prepare for the test. He also attended classes at the Lycée Saint-Louis and lectures of Jean-Baptiste Dumas at the Sorbonne.
In 1843, he passed the test with a high ranking and entered the École Normale Supérieure. In 1845 he received the licencié ès sciences (Master of Science) degree.
In 1846, he was appointed a professor of physics at the Collège de Tournon in Ardèche, but the chemist Antoine Jérôme Balard wanted him back at the École Normale Supérieure as a graduate laboratory assistant (agrégé préparateur).
He joined Ballard and simultaneously started his research in crystallography and in 1847, he submitted his two theses, one in chemistry and the other in physics.
After serving briefly as a professor of physics at the Dijon Lycée in 1848, he became a professor of chemistry at the University of Strasbourg, where he met and courted Marie Laurent, daughter of the university’s rector in 1849. They were married on May 29, 1849, and together had five children, only two of whom survived to adulthood; the other three died of typhoid.
Louis Pasteur Death
In 1868, Pasteur suffered a severe brain stroke that paralyzed the left side of his body, but he recovered. A stroke or uremia in 1894 severely impaired his health. Failing to fully recover, he died on September 28, 1895, near Paris. He was given a state funeral and was buried in the Cathedral of Notre Dame, but his remains were reinterred in the Pasteur Institute in Paris, in a vault covered in depictions of his accomplishments in Byzantine mosaics.
Louis Pasteur Discoveries
Pasteur readily applied his knowledge of microbes and fermentation to the wine and beer industries in France, effectively saving the industries from collapse due to problems associated with production and with the contamination that occurred during export. In 1863, at the request of the emperor of France, Napoleon III, Pasteur studied wine contamination and showed it to be caused by microbes.
To prevent contamination, Pasteur used a simple procedure: he heated the wine to 50–60 °C (120–140 °F), a process now known universally as pasteurization. Today pasteurization is seldom used for wines that benefit from aging since it kills the organisms that contribute to the aging process, but it is applied to many foods and beverages, particularly milk.
Following Pasteur’s success with wine, he focused his studies on beer. By developing practical techniques for the control of beer fermentation, he was able to provide a rational methodology for the brewing industry. He also devised a method for the manufacturing of beer that prevented deterioration of the product during long periods of transport on ships.
Louis Pasteur Vaccination
During the mid- to late 19th century Pasteur demonstrated that microorganisms cause disease and discovered how to make vaccines from weakened, or attenuated, microbes. He developed the earliest vaccines against fowl cholera, anthrax, and rabies.
Louis Pasteur Contribution
Pasteur’s academic positions were numerous, and his scientific accomplishments earned him France’s highest decoration, the Legion of Honour, as well as election to the Académie des Sciences and many other distinctions. Today there are some 30 institutes and an impressive number of hospitals, schools, buildings, and streets that bear his name—a set of honors bestowed on few scientists.
Pasteur’s contributions to science, technology, and medicine are near without precedent. He pioneered the study of molecular asymmetry; discovered that microorganisms cause fermentation and disease; originated the process of pasteurization; saved the beer, wine, and silk industries in France; and developed vaccines against anthrax and rabies.
Louis Pasteur Facts
1. Louis Pasteur lived from December the 27th 1822 to September the 28th 1895 and was famous for his work on disease causes and prevention.
2. He is well known for inventing a process to stop food and liquid such as milk from making people sick. This method is called Pasteurization, it helps reduce the number of microorganisms that could cause disease while not affecting the quality and taste in a way which sterilization would.
3. Many of Pasteur’s experiments supported the germ theory of disease, they helped show that microorganisms are the true cause of many diseases. In earlier times people believed that diseases were spontaneously generated, over time this theory was superseded thanks to the work of Pasteur and many others.
4. Pasteur’s work also included breakthroughs in the field of chemistry. He discovered the molecular basis for the asymmetry of certain crystals, made discoveries related to the nature of tartaric acid and was the professor of chemistry at the University of Strasbourg.
5. Pasteur studied the immune system and vaccination through research on chicken cholera and other diseases. He helped produce the first vaccine for rabies, saving the life of a young boy in 1885 who became the first person to receive such treatment.
6. In honor of his work and influential contributions, Pasteur was made a Grand Croix of the Legion of Honor, a prestigious French order.
7. Famous Louis Pasteur quotes include: “Science knows no country, because knowledge belongs to humanity, and is the torch which illuminates the world.”
8. “I am on the edge of mysteries and the veil is getting thinner and thinner.”
9. “I am utterly convinced that Science and Peace will triumph over Ignorance and War, those nations will eventually unite not to destroy but to edify, and that the future will belong to those who have done the most for the sake of suffering humanity.”
10. “One does not ask of one who suffers: What is your country and what is your religion? One merely says: You suffer, that is enough for me”
Louis Pasteur Quotes
1. In the fields of observation, chance favors only the prepared mind.
2. Science knows no country, because knowledge belongs to humanity, and is the torch which illuminates the world.
3. Let me tell you the secret that has led me to my goal. My strength lies solely in my tenacity.
4. There are no such things as applied sciences, only applications of science.
5. Do not let yourself be tainted with a barren skepticism.
6. When I approach a child, he inspires in me two sentiments; tenderness for what he is, and respect for what he may become.
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